Material Evidence: The experiments

5 experimental techniques have been used to study the map's ink and parchment.

(1) Ink 1974 Visual study Baynes-Cope (British Museum, London)
(2) Ink 1974 Microscopy McCrone (McCrone Institute, Chicago)
(3) Ink 1987 Elemental composition Cahill (University of California, Davis)
(4) Ink 1988 Report McCrone (McCrone Institute, Chicago)
(5) Ink 1990 Report Towe (Smithsonian Institution, D.C.)
(6) Ink 1995 Report Cahill (University of California, Davis)
(7) Ink 2002 Molecular composition Clark (University College, London)
(8) Parchment 2002 Carbon dating Donahue (University of Arizona, Tucson)

3 subsequent reports have re-interpreted the data. Review all the material evidence. Draw conclusions that are consistent with the evidence.

X-ray Analysis
Raman Spectroscopy
Carbon Dating